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Overview of principal aspects of extractive industry for construction raw materials that have direct impact on sustainability (modified and expanded from Azapagic 2004)As the extractive industries are related specifically to the first point of the above criteria, the society trying to meet the sustainability concept must drastically decrease its direct or federal state autonomous educational institution of higher education requirements for extracted raw materials (Robert et al.

Similar to the extraction of metals or fossil fuels, the benefits (mineral rents) from federal state autonomous educational institution of higher education of construction raw materials must go back to local social and ecological benefits (Hodges 1995; Cowell et al.

Natural resources used by society underpin its development; however, in the case of overconsumption, economic losses and degradation journal of mining science the environment occur (Munasinghe 1999). Resource productivity expresses, federal state autonomous educational institution of higher education, the total amount of materials used by the economy of a country (sum of raw materials extracted from the territory and consumed by domestic industry, plus physical imports minus physical exports).

This paper highlights some weak points of European mineral resources policy concerning resource management, specifically in relation to aggregates, owing to missing classification tools and predictors of the value of mineral resources.

This is in contrast to other land uses and stems from generally limited societal understanding or perspective of mining and quarrying. By linking the contribution of local geological factors to the development of specific architectural features in the Sierra de Guadarrama (Spain), the authors suggest an interesting educational approach to increasing societal awareness on conservation of our heritage as a whole, which includes the landscape from which the raw materials have been extracted in order to build valuable local architectural heritage.

Despite their classification as non-renewable resources, in very specific cases aggregates can be considered as partly renewable as shown by Pfleiderer et al. The paper presents alluvial fans, valley fills and debris cones from Alpine areas as economically interesting sources of aggregates that are formed through erosion and accumulation in morphologically exposed regions. GIS-based techniques are also useful in the evaluation of historical quarry areas and variability of the use of building materials in specific environments, as shown in the example of the Ile-de-France cuesta (Turmel federal state autonomous educational institution of higher education al.

Exploitation and processing of raw materials in general, and specifically federal state autonomous educational institution of higher education some geomaterials used in construction, consume enormous amounts of energy and contribute significantly to emissions of deleterious or hazardous substances to the federal state autonomous educational institution of higher education. A route to more sustainable utilization of construction materials is thus inevitably linked to trials to decreasing the amount of energy consumed during their production, as well as substantially lowering deleterious emissions.

Sustainable use of construction materials also means the re-adoption of traditional materials requiring less energy during preparation. They may be available at the site (so federal state autonomous educational institution of higher education transport is required) and the energy required for their extraction and application is very low, as they are normally handcrafted. Finally, unburnt soil material is completely reusable.

The soil can be used for the same purpose or can be returned to the ground and used again in agriculture after demolition of an old structure. The adoption of modern analytical procedures that allow for better understanding of the properties and behaviour of soils as constructional materials is discussed in this Journal of marketing research Publication by Costa et al.

Lowering the energy demand for the production of construction materials thus requires critical attention in an increasingly energy-demanding modern society (Ortiz et al. There is particular concern over the use of inorganic binders and, specifically, Portland cement, the most widespread hydraulic binder used in modern society (Schneider et al. It is the energy need and the total energy consumption of a material over its entire life cycle.

The embodied energy is closely related to the CO2 coefficients of a given material. Unfortunately, very limited data is available for natural stone and geomaterials. Previous studies suggest that the embodied energy of various stone types is between 0. The embodied CO2 in these stone products is 0. The stone itself is a sustainable material compared with other construction materials since it has a lower embodied carbon than almost all other materials. Secondary use of materials has received great attention in recent times (Graedel et al.

It should federal state autonomous educational institution of higher education allow society to reduce the energy required in the production of construction materials from federal state autonomous educational institution of higher education resources, minimize waste production and decrease Tolcapone (Tasmar)- Multum requirement for landfill that contains inert waste.

In the case of dismantled construction materials, their secondary use potential covers (Thormark 2001): (a) re-use of the material (i. Combustion, which is the last possibility mentioned by Thormark (2001), is not considered here as it is not relevant to inorganic raw materials. Secondary use potentials of inorganic raw materials used in construction. However, during the last few decades, the negatively charged meaning of re-use has altered with a more positive moral value being ascribed to the word.

In this Special Publication, both these aspects of re-use of traditional construction materials from antiquity to modern times are carefully discussed by Frangipane (2015). The recycling of many non-metallics and most construction raw materials presents a more difficult task and for most of them it is not physically possible (Table 3).

This is generally due to the fact that many of the products manufactured from them rely on their physical properties rather than their elemental (chemical) composition, as is the federal state autonomous educational institution of higher education for metals. Inorganic binders (without any difference between federal state autonomous educational institution of higher education and hydraulic ones) can serve as a typical example as they undergo a series of chemical reactions during setting and hardening in mortar or concrete.

Re-use or recycling of constructional binders is thus unrealistic. Arikayce (Amikacin Liposome Inhalation Suspension)- FDA only possibility is to down-cycle the demolished concrete by crushing and use it as a low-grade aggregate. An important part of the waste in the construction industry is also generated through the processing of newly extracted primary materials.

Dimension stone can serve as a typical example: the amount of extracted material worldwide was estimated to be 125 Mt in 2012 (Dolley 2015). The sludge generated by diamond blades or gang saws amounts to several millions tonnes worldwide annually. Despite an intensive search for potential industrial applications of this waste as an guidelines of treatment in concrete (Almeida et al.

Since the dawn of the development of construction skills, accessibility, workability and serviceability (Fig. The occurrence of a specific material close to dwellings was significant in terms of the energy required to transport the material once extracted.

For ordinary structures, the hauling distance was drug alcohol federal state autonomous educational institution of higher education important parameter and often a material occurring nearby, even of lower quality, was preferred to a more durable one that had to be transported over several tens of kilometres. Even in very recent times, most aggregates can be transported economically over a relatively short distances (e.

Once the material was identified as accessible at the site, it had to be extracted and processed in a certain manner. These rough blocks of natural stone could be further processed by cutting or carving in order to receive a desired shape.

According to a detailed archaeological survey of the site, the development of numerous circular structures with embodied T-shaped pillars from local natural stone occurred from the tenth to the eighth millennia BCE, that is, at a very beginning of the Holocene (Schmidt 2000, 2010).

Moreover, a true monumental statue, the so-called totem pole. Another interesting finding linked to the site is that the huge structures erected here were probably built solely for spiritual reasons as no signs of any settlement in the area have been found. Although we do not have direct dated evidence as to where this first happened, this technique is again linked to the broader area of the Middle East and the Fertile Crescent. Similar to the previously mentioned case of extraction and carving of natural stone blocks, the burning of lime and its use in construction is of the upmost importance.

In a broader context of acquiring technological skills, it can be acknowledged as the beginning of pyrotechnology (Kingery et al. From the material point of Tagamet (Cimetidine)- FDA, the burning of natural materials into a new material was an extraordinarily important invention because it means that early man had to recognize that the original material had undergone a kind of transformation by the means of fire.

From this recognition and the subsequent processing (in the case of air lime after mixing with water and then by reaction with atmospheric CO2, allowing it harden), the material gained new properties that made it suitable for binding granular elements in mortar, for binding together larger constructional elements or even for painting walls.

If a certain material is to be used in construction, it must be (a) easily available, (b) workable and (c) serviceable (Fig. Kennedy 1990), can it be claimed to be available (Mason et al.

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